History of ESRDC Research

This content will be a rolling release of documentation to provide a continuously improving set of snapshots of the technical history of the ESRDC. As new documents become available, they will be appended to this post. Check back regularly to see if new content has been added.

Notional Four Zone MVDC Shipboard Power System Model

The following document provides information regarding documentation of the ‘Notional Four Zone MVDC Shipboard Power System Model’. The notional model is based on the IEEE-1826 zonal architecture utilizing MVDC breakerless shipboard power system (SPS) and as presented in [1][2][3][4]. Under previous grant funding through the ESRDC, a notional two zone 12 kV MVDC SPS model was implemented in DRTS platform, RSCAD/RTDS which was primarily intended for use in system fault management studies [5].

Draft ESRDC Initial Notional Ship Data

The Electric Ship Research and Development Consortium (ESRDC) has created a notional ship for use as a test case in developing research to advance the state of the art in electric ship concepts. The notional ship is a nominal 100MW, 10,000 ton displacement surface combatant, using data compiled from open source documentation. This document provides data relative to the ship, for use by ESRDC researchers.

Using S3D to Analyze Ship System Alternatives for a 100 MW 10,000 ton Surface Combatant

The Electric Ship Research and Development Consortium (ESRDC) was tasked by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with using the Smart Ship Systems Design (S3D) software to develop and compare several ship system designs demonstrating key elements of a 100 MW Medium Voltage Direct Current (MVDC) electric power distribution architecture suitable for integration into a future 10,000 ton surface combatant.

Documentation for a Notional Two Zone Medium Voltage DC Shipboard Power System Model implemented on the RTDS

The MVDC architecture with 12 kV DC distribution represents a shift from traditional 60 Hz AC shipboard power distribution system and has the potential to provide superior power density, power quality while being affordable. The report here in provides information on ‘the two zone MVDC shipboard power system model’. The main contribution of this report is the development of shipboard power system model in digital real-time simulator (DRTS), RTDSTM. The model is based on the zonal integrated power distribution system architecture proposed by N. Doerry in [1].


Future naval MVDC power systems will contain a considerable amount of power electronic devices (PEDs). The switching events from these PEDs will cause added harmonic content to the system a produce undesirable effects, such as common-mode (ground) current through coupling of the power system and the ship's hull. Even in a fully ungrounded ship system, there will exist inherent parasitic coupling. Research in the area of EMI/EMC characterization and standards provides insight into common-mode and conduction currents within a specified component.

Parallelizing the Simulation of Shipboard Power Systems - F. Uriarte, R. Hebner, M. Mazzola, G. Henley, T. Haupt, A. Card, S. Abdelwahed, J. Shi, M. Alattar

As a result of this research the Navy has a simulation approach for ship power systems that is computationally effective enough to permit efficient simulation. In addition to simulating the basic power system, significant progress has been made in the simulation of the control system.

Improving the Operational Reliability of the Shipboard Power System through Model-Based Design and Controls - S. Abdelwahed, R. Amgai, and J. Shi

The ESRDC is working to develop the effective measures to improve the overall operational reliability of the shipboard power system through effective model-based design and controls. The approach is thus divided into two aspects: long term static controls approach that supports the steady state long term planning and dynamic control approach which handles the dynamic power system reconfiguration under different scenarios including the load variation and fault conditions.

Energy Storage on Future Electric Ships - R. Hebner

While the primary storage on ships is in the fuel, there is an increasing opportunity for additional storage technologies to play a role. The primary drivers are large pulsed loads. While these loads can, in principle, be operated directly from fuel, it appears that the power system may be smaller, lighter, and more efficient in some specific instances with additional storage technologies.

Co-Simulation and Dynamic Assessment of Thermal Management Strategies Aboard Naval Surface Ships - T. Kiehne

The US Navy has committed to technology development for an all-electric ship (AES) that incorporates significant advances in power management, advanced sensors and weaponry, re-configurability, and survivability. Quantifying the close relationship between ship-board thermal, mechanical, and electrical sub-systems is of fundamental importance to understanding the nature of a large integrated system like the AES.

Improving the Reliability of MVDC Ship Power Systems - S. Santoso, A. Arapostathis, S. Abdelwahed, R. Amgai, D. Cartes, R. Soman, T. Vu, B. Stevens, and J. Shi

Analysis was performed, by the UT-Austin team, to quantify and compare the reliability of several different notional shipboard DC distribution system topologies in serving their equipment loads. Further, the relationship between the relative placement of loads and generators within a distribution system and the system’s reliability was investigated, resulting in an algorithmicallyderived optimal placement configuration in the best-performing system topology.

Modeling of Doubly Fed Induction Machine Under AC/DC Excitation on Stator for Shipboard Propulsion - A. Ouroura, A. Banerjee, M. Tomovich, S. Leeb, and J. Kirtley

Future naval combatants will see increased demand for electrical power, which motivates the consideration of new power systems architecture. This document briefly reviews MVDC and MVADC concepts, and examines modeling to explore the practicality of a variable speed electric drive which takes advantage of a MVADC system. That is, if a doubly fed machine is used as the prime mover, both the AC and DC elements of the power system can be utilized in order to

Intelligent Shipboard Sensor Network (Noise Mitigation) - D. Cartes and D. Kelle

It is imperative that the US Navy reduce its dependence on redundant and often superfluous sensors and sensor. The DDG 1000 experienced a failed system in the early stages of production due to a failure by information overload. There were on order of 14,000 sensors and 22,000 signals that had to be communicated and analyzed at a high rate of time. A solution to this failure is and update and intelligent sensor network. One of the challenges facing integration of

Integration of an Electromagnetic Gun Power Supply into a Ship Power System - S. Pratap, A. Ouroua, and R. Hebner

While the development of electromagnetic gun technology continues, so does improvement of the power systems in future Navy ships. This investigation reviewed the work in both areas to assess the likelihood of compatibility of the two in the future. From the available data, it appears there is growing compatibility.

At the conceptual design level, it appears that good compatibility is likely. It is probable that a specific point design today may require some less than ideal choices. The ongoing research, however, will likely broaden the design space in the future.

Fault Current Limiting Methods - P. Cairoli, U. Ghisla, R. Dougal, H. Ginn, X. Liu, M. Yu, and M. Steurer

Increasing performance, higher efficiency, and decreasing cost of electronic power converters have spurred a rediscovery and proliferation of DC power distribution systems. Although DC distribution offers advantages such as higher transmission efficiency, higher power density, and ease of interfacing asynchronous sources, enthusiasm for adopting DC technologies suffers from widespread concern over the means to protect DC distribution systems against short-circuit faults.

Evaluation of Fault Management Using Active Power Distribution Nodes - M. Kim, and A. Kwasinski

This technical report explores fault protection capabilities of Active Power Distribution Node (APDN) in a shipboard power system. Based on the configuration characteristics, an APDN has multiple power electronic interface ports with power control capability. An APDN may be equipped with a central energy storage. This report studies detailed design options and related protection performance.

Grounding of Shipboard Power Systems - Results from Research and Preliminary Guidelines for the Shipbuilding Industry - L. Graber, S. Pekarek, M. Mazzola, P. Breslend, A. Brovont, A. Card, M. Kofler, J. Kvitkovic, B. Mohebali, M. Rahmani, and M. Steurer

In this year’s research, a goal has been to further develop analytical and numerical tools to evaluate the impact of alternative ground configurations on ship hull currents in MVDC power systems. The research extends previous efforts where a focus was on the fault performance of MVDC systems under alternative ground schemes. On the impact of grounding on hull currents, to include conductors bonded to the hull as part of the electrical safety system, there are several points that are made.

Collaborative Design Workshop - M. Andrus, I. Leonard, J. Ordonez, J. Chalfant, A. Card, R. Dougal, B. Langland, R. Smart, and J. Herbst

Concept design is arguably the most important phase of a product’s design, because errors or poor choices at this stage adversely impact downstream design efforts and production [Jiang 2010, Wang 2002]. The Navy recognizes the importance of the early stage design phases, and the need for tools to facilitate them. In a February 2008 memo Vice Admiral Sullivan identified desired goals for ship design and analysis tools [Doerry].

Are Active Rectifiers Required? - J. Kirtley Jr., M. Steurer, M. Bosworth, X. Liu, S. Sudhoff, S. Pekarek, S. Albatran, and C. Madvesh

This study was initiated to try to identify the issues in selecting the type of rectifier to be used in a ship system in which a substantial part (or all) of all generated electric power is converted to DC. The type and control methods for the AC/DC converter (‘Rectifier’) are known to have substantive impacts on both the generator and on the DC power system. Among the important features of the rectifier system are its behavior in the event of a fault on the DC side of the system, injection of time harmonic currents in both AC and DC sides of the system, and control of DC side voltage.

Advanced Power Converters for Shipboard Power Processing - C. Edrington, F. Fleming, and G. Rivera

The demand for efficient MVDC systems in future naval ships requires a thorough investigation of the energy conversion process. One area that significantly impacts the efficiency of MVDC systems is thermal management. Energy conversion mechanisms, such as power converters, require cooling systems to prevent overheating. This contributes immensely to both the weight and price of the overall design.

A Model-Based Approach to Self-Protection of Shipboard Systems - Q. Chen, M. Trivedi, S. Abdelwahed and T. Morris

In this report we present a model-based autonomic security management approach for shipboard systems. The proposed approach integrates intrusion, data analysis, intrusion detection, control, optimization, and forensic analysis to enable automatic estimation, detection, identification, learning and protection from cyber-attacks. The security management structure uses time-series model to estimate the future state of the systems based on historical data hence, the potential threats are avoided or mitigated as early as possible.

A Methodology of Automatic Model Generation Using MATLAB Code - P. Bresland, and M. Steurer

The purpose of this project was to investigate ways in which large system models can be quickly and easily generated in an automated fashion in MATLAB/Simulink in order to assess the behavior of a wide range of considered variants of a system. This approach is intended to increase the efficiency of constructing system models from sets of existing component models and allow the behavior and performance of alternative designs to be more easily explored.

Thermal Control Impact on Advanced Shipboard - C.S. Edrington, F. Fleming, and G. Rivera

The demand for efficient MVDC systems in future naval ships requires a thorough investigation of the energy conversion process. One area that significantly impacts the efficiency of MVDC systems is thermal management. Energy conversion mechanisms, such as power converters, require cooling systems to prevent overheating. This contributes immensely to both the weight and price of the overall design.

Notional System Report - M. Andrus, M. Bosworth, J. Crider, H. Ouroua, E. Santi, and S. Sudhoff

The objective of this report is to set forth a group of time-domain models for the early-stage design study of shipboard power systems, and to demonstrate their use on various system architectures. The effort stemmed out of an earlier effort in which waveform-level models of three notional architectures – a Medium Voltage AC System, a High-Frequency AC System, and a Medium Voltage DC System were partially developed.

Notional Systems Models - M. Andrus, M. Bosworth, J. Crider, H. Ouroua, E. Santi, and S. Sudhoff

The objective of this report is to set forth a group of time-domain models for the earlydesign stage study of shipboard power systems. These models are highly simplified abstractions of shipboard power system components. The motivation for the simplification is two-fold. First, at an early design stage it is doubtful if the parameters needed for a more detailed system representation would be available. A highly detailed simulation would be based on many

Design of Real-Time Synchronization Controller in Electric Ship Power Systems - E. Santi, H. Zhang, and Y. Zhang

In medium-voltage AC (MVAC) and high-frequency AC (HFAC) power distribution systems for an Electric Ship, system reconfiguration may cause previously disconnected parts of the electrical distribution system to be interconnected. This may lead to large transients, if the overall system is not properly synchronized. This report proposes a Real-Time Synchronization Controller (RTSC), which solves this problem by keeping all parts of the electrical distribution system phase-synchronized at all times. The RTSC augments the conventional frequency droop control for generators.

Preliminary FMEA for the MVDC Shipboard Power System Distribution Architecture - D. Cartes, R. Soman, and T. Vu

This short report provides an overview of the failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) studies undertaken to date for the MVDC shipboard power system (SPS) architecture. It is intended to highlight the approach, benefits and initial outcomes with respect to research approaches. The important benefits of the preliminary functional-FMEA (F-FMEA) to date are as follows:

Upgrading HIL and PHIL Facilities at CAPS - M. Sloderbeck, K. Schoder, and J. Kvitkovic

The software infrastructure for operation and control of the 5 MW variable voltage source at CAPS had to be upgraded to ensure continued support and improved controls development and implementation environment. The upgrade included the corresponding CHIL setup, and furthermore, actually used the CHIL in the upgrade process to reduce the risks involved. The upgrade process was successfully completed and the PHIL facility has already been used for experiments including power conversion module testing and superconducting fault current limiters.

Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulations of MW Scale Power - Investigation of HIL Interface Algorithms with an Inductive Type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter - J. Langston, J. Hauer, F. Fleming, M. Sloderbeck, and M. Steurer

Existence of adequate power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) interface algorithms is important to ensure accuracy and stability of PHIL experiments. Developing and testing of such algorithms is even more important at higher power levels since a) inherent latencies in high power PHIL amplifiers are significantly higher than latencies in low power amplifiers and b) risks and cost of damages to devices under test or amplifier due to instabilities caused by inadequate PHIL are higher at higher power levels.

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